An Analysis Of The Manhattan Project In World War Ii. Why Was It Called The Manhattan Project.

The Manhattan Project was started in response to fears that German scientists had been working on a weapon using nuclear technology since the s—and that Adolf Hitler was prepared to use it.

On December 28, President Roosevelt authorized the formation of the Manhattan Project to combine these various research efforts with the goal of weaponizing nuclear energy. Facilities were set up in remote locations in New MexicoTennessee and Washingtonas well as sites in Canada, for this research and related atomic tests to be performed.

Robert Oppenheimer was already working on the concept of nuclear fission along with Edward Teller and others when he was named director of the Los Alamos Laboratory in northern New Mexico in Los Alamos Laboratory—the creation of which was known as Project Y—was formally established on January 1, The complex is where the first Manhattan Project bombs were built and tested.

On July 16, in a remote desert location near Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first atomic bomb was successfully detonated—the Trinity Test —creating an enormous mushroom cloud some 40, feet high and ushering in the Atomic Age.

The Potsdam Conference With the Germans sustaining heavy losses in Europe and nearing surrender, the consensus among U. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Meanwhile, the military leaders of the Manhattan Project had identified HiroshimaJapan, as an ideal target for an atomic bomb, given its size and the fact that there were no known American prisoners of war in the area.

A forceful demonstration of the technology developed in New Mexico was deemed necessary to encourage the Japanese to surrender. The two bombs combined killed more thanpeople and leveled the two Japanese cities to the ground.

Following the end of the war, the United States formed the Atomic Energy Commission to oversee research efforts designed to apply the technologies developed under the Manhattan Project to other fields.

Ultimately, inthen-President Lyndon B. Johnson put an end to the U. The nuclear fission technology perfected by the Manhattan Project engineers has since become the basis for the development of nuclear reactors, for power generators, as well as other innovations, including medical imaging systems for example , MRI machines and radiation therapies for various forms of cancer.

While many of the sources that turn up are accurate and well-prepared, many more are of dubious quality or utterly irrelevant to serious study of the Project. Whether one is a casual reader, a student preparing a class project, a physicist interested in technical details, or a historian researching organizational or sociological issues, it is difficult to know where to begin.

In this article I offer a brief survey of sources on the Project. My intent to give a highly-selective list of a few solid starting places under each of four headings: general survey-level works, biographical works, technically-oriented works, and websites.

Readers seeking a more extensive listing should consult my annotated bibliographies on the Project which were published in the September and February editions of American Journal of Physics.

Known as the Smyth Report, it is readily available online. Gosling, F. Department of Energy, Hewlett, R. Jones, V. Special Studies. Rhodes, R. Smyth, H. Biographical works The outstanding personalities of the Project were the physicist J. Bird, K. Robert Oppenheimer Knopf, Cassidy, D.

Norris, R. Pais, A. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Oxford, This report is considered a founding technical document of the Project; it was distributed to newly-arriving scientists at Los Alamos and summarizes what was known at the time of the genesis of the laboratory.

David Hawkins offers an extensive qualitative technical and administrative history of Los Alamos from its inception through December The detailed technical history of Los Alamos by Hoddeson et al. For physicists who wish to dig into the technical details, this author humbly recommends his own text.

Bainbridge, K. Bernstein, J. Hawkins, D. Hoddeson, L. A, and Westfall, C. Serber, R.

The Manhattan Project This once classified photograph features the first atomic bomb — a weapon that atomic scientists had nicknamed “Gadget.

Early inthe world’s scientific community discovered that German physicists had learned the secrets of splitting a uranium atom. Fears soon spread over the possibility of Nazi scientists utilizing that energy to produce a bomb capable of unspeakable destruction.

They agreed that the President must be informed of the dangers of atomic technology in the hands of the Axis powers.

An analysis of the manhattan project in world war ii


They agreed that the President must be informed of the dangers of atomic technology in the hands of the Axis powers.

Fermi traveled to Washington in March to express his concerns to government officials. But few shared his uneasiness. Leaving nothing to chance, Los Alamos atomic scientists conducted a pre-test test in May to check the monitoring instruments.

A ton bomb was exploded some yards from the Trinity site where Gadget would be detonated a few weeks later. Einstein penned a letter to President Roosevelt urging the development of an atomic research program later that year.

Roosevelt saw neither the necessity nor the utility for such a project, but agreed to proceed slowly. In latethe American effort to design and build an atomic bomb received its code name — the Manhattan Project. At first the research was based at only a few universities — Columbia University, the University of Chicago and the University of California at Berkeley.

A breakthrough occurred in December when Fermi led a group of physicists to produce the first controlled nuclear chain reaction under the grandstands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Enrico Fermi, a physicist who left fascist Italy for America, encouraged the U.

The result was the top-secret “Manhattan Project. The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Robert Oppenheimer was put in charge of putting the pieces together at Los Alamos. The Manhattan Project employed overAmericans. Secrecy was paramount. Neither the Germans nor the Japanese could learn of the project. Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed that Stalin would be kept in the dark.

Consequently, there was no public awareness or debate. Keepingpeople quiet would be impossible; therefore only a small privileged cadre of inner scientists and officials knew about the atomic bomb’s development.

Although the Axis powers remained unaware of the efforts at Los Alamos, American leaders later learned that a Soviet spy named Klaus Fuchs had penetrated the inner circle of scientists. This crater in the Nevada desert was created by a kiloton nuclear bomb buried feet beneath the surface.

It is the result of a test investigating whether nuclear weapons could be used to excavate canals and harbors. By the summer ofOppenheimer was ready to test the first bomb. On July 16, at Trinity Site near Alamogordo, New Mexico, scientists of the Manhattan Project readied themselves to watch the detonation of the world’s first atomic bomb.

The device was affixed to a foot tower and discharged just before dawn. No one was properly prepared for the result. A blinding flash visible for miles lit up the morning sky.

A mushroom cloud reached 40, feet, blowing out windows of civilian homes up to miles away. When the cloud returned to earth it created a half-mile wide crater metamorphosing sand into glass. A bogus cover-up story was quickly released, explaining that a huge ammunition dump had just exploded in the desert.

Soon word reached President Truman in Potsdam, Germany that the project was successful. The world had entered the nuclear age. Fifty Years From Trinity The Seattle Times has created one of the definitive sites examining the development of the atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project, which included some of history’s greatest scientific minds, lead to the end of the war against the Japanese.

But was it worth the environmental and financial costs? This massive site provides loads of information to help you reach your own conclusions. The Costs of the Manhattan Project This concise website details exactly how much money was spent on the development of the atomic bomb during the Manhattan Project, and exactly where that money was spent.

The Manhattan Project Here is a month-by-month detailed account of the status of the atomic bomb leading up to the detonation of “Gadget” in the deserts of Alamogordo, New Mexico in July, Images of the important figures, bomb-manufacturing plant life, and explosions make this internet site a to determine.


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