The Biological And Psychodynamic Models Of Abnormality Essay. Psychodynamic Theory.

People who suffer from OCD will have persistent thoughts until a task is carried out to reduce anxiety levels Comer, … Words – Pages 4 Behaviourist Approach to criminal behaviour Essay The Behaviourist Approach to criminal behaviour Criminal Psychology is the application of psychological principles on criminal activity.


Discuss how nature and nurture act together to influence our behaviour. This essay will describe two scientific terms believed to influence how humans behave and then progress into discussion on how nature and nurture act together to influence human behaviour.

The essay begins by giving a explanation of the biological structure and definition of a genotype, followed by a description of phenotype and explains their relationship… Words – Pages 7 Essay on Psychology: Sigmund Freud and Psychodynamic Approach Discuss the psychodynamic approach in psychology 10 marks.

The psychodynamic approach states that behaviour is determined through unconscious processes in the human brain. We cannot explain what happens inside the unconscious, we can only predict what the outcome will be.

We are unaware of actions of thoughts and mental processes and have no control over our behaviour. Psychology Today This can be due to uneven gender distribution.

The Biological Model explains these figures best. An example could be Women are more subjected to fluctuating hormone levels child birth ; this increases the risk of depression.

There are many different models of abnormality, the majority of them favouring psychological explanations. Refer to at least one other approach in your answer. The causal level of analysis incorporates physiological explanations, such as the effect of nerves and hormones on behaviour.

According to biological psychologists, behaviour is controlled by the nervous system, which consists of the central nervous system the mind and the… Terms – Webpages 8 Essay on The Psychodynamic Approach The psychodynamic approach focuses on individuals who behave in a particular way due to having emotional feelings hidden deep inside their unconscious mind.

The theory was developed by Sigmund Freud who was a psychologist. The use of the psychodynamic approach within health and interpersonal care and attention helps individuals understand and support individuals who are undergoing the psychodynamic process as it is definitely generally used around the world.

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Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality Intro The many different models used to clarify the nature and treatment of mental illness compound the problems of determining and classifying irregular behavior. Five major colleges of thought are summarised below. The natural medical model The medical of abnormality model offers centered the psychiatric occupation since the last century.

The underlying presumption of this model is definitely that mental ailments resemble physical ailments and can consequently become diagnosed and treated in a similar way. Just mainly because physical ailments are caused by disease generating germs, genetic factors, biochemical imbalances or changes to the nervous system, it is definitely presumed that this is definitely also true of mental ailments.

Because it presumes that mental disorders arise from such physical causes, the medical model is definitely consequently a natural model.

Example A patient delivering with symptoms of major depression e. This could become fixed by prescribing medicines to restore the balance, or in severe instances ECT electro convulsive therapy. Evaluation of the natural model Presuming that mental disorders are the result of natural factors is definitely not without its problems.

For example, the classification of physical ailments entails statement and measurement of intent symptoms such as broken bone fragments, fever, blood pressure etc.

These cannot become very easily assessed, so the clinician must make a reasoning centered mainly on encounter. Also, the difference between physical and mental illness is definitely that analysis of physical illness can normally relate to the causes of the problem known as aetiology.

For example, measuring blood sugars levels could check a analysis of diabetes. However mainly because we will observe, the causes of many mental ailments are unfamiliar.

This offers an important result for treatments centered on the biomedical model, as they can become criticised as focusing only on the symptoms of mental disorders and not the causes. In this way the individual is usually discouraged from taking control of his or her own life and as a consequence his or her problems will ultimately remain unresolved.

Against these unfavorable criticisms could be set the undeniable progress that has been made in understanding the biological basis of many mental disorders especially schizophrenia and the successful development of bio-medical treatments.

In summary, the advantages of the biological model are: The model is usually based on well established sciences such as medicine There is usually evidence that biochemical and genetic factors are associated with some mental illnesses: schizophrenia, for example It provides a structured and logical system of diagnosis and treatment If mental illness has a physical cause, patients cannot be blamed — the person is usually not responsible for the abnormal functioning The weaknesses of the biological model are: The model does not explain the success of purely psychological treatments for mental illnesses For most mental illnesses, there is usually no definite proof of a physical cause The model does not include concern of interpersonal and cultural factors which do seem to be statistically linked to mental illness, e.

It still offers for many therapists a favored alternative to biological approaches to abnormality. The core assumption of this approach is usually that the roots of mental disorders are psychological. They lay in the unconscious mind and are the result the failure of defence mechanisms to safeguard the self or ego from stress.

Many of these intrapsychic conflicts involve basic biological instincts, especially sex ones. Many adult problems are reflections of these earlier conflicts, particularly those stemming from infancy and early child years such as the Oedipus discord.

Treatments based on the psychodynamic model focus on gaining access to the unconscious and exploring the conflicts with the patient so that they are able to confront them and handle them in an adult way.

The emphasis is usually on the patient gaining insight into the origins of their problems. This technique is usually known as psychoanalysis. The method of psychoanalysis first developed by Freud is usually still practised, but perhaps more common today are the psychodynamic psychotherapies.

These share the fundamental principles of psychoanalysis, but are more eclectic and relaxed in their treatment of patients. Example A patient showing with stress symptoms would be motivated to explore his past in order to discover problems occurring during one of the psychosexual stages oral, anal, phallic and genital.

In order to deal with this problem the patient has used ego-defence mechanisms, such as repression or denial. These have taken up a lot of psychic energy, leaving the patient with fewer resources to deal with everyday life. Treatment would involve, among other points, helping the patient to gain insight into the causes of his stress.

Evaluation of the psychoanalytic model The psychodymamic model has a number of advantages which account for its long lasting popularity: Many observations of psychodynamic therapists appear to be borne out in everyday life, e.


psychodynamic model of abnormality treatments

PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY PDF


Evaluation of the psychoanalytic model The psychodymamic model has a number of advantages which account for its long lasting popularity: Many observations of psychodynamic therapists appear to be borne out in everyday life, e.

Mental illness could, in some cases at least, be treated! The goals of behaviourism were to move psychology toward a scientific model, which focused on the observation and measurement of behaviour. Its assumptions were that behaviour is usually primarily the result of the environment rather then genetics or instincts and so the behaviourists reject the view that abnormal behaviour has a biological basis.

Like the psychodynamic theorists, behaviourists have a deterministic view of mental disorders: they believe that our actions are largely decided by our experiences in existence. Nevertheless, unlike Freud, they discover irregular conduct can be a discovered response through fitness and not really as the result of secret and they would claim unknowable subconscious procedures.

While very much of our conduct can be adaptive, assisting us to manage with a changing globe, it can be also feasible to find out behaviors that are irregular and unwanted. Nevertheless, such maladaptive learning can become treated by changing the environment therefore that un-learning could consider place.

Some period in the past, she would possess discovered to correlate the feelings of dread with the incitement of becoming in a high place through a opportunity association between the two stimuli.

As a result, she would prevent levels, and as a result not really possess the chance to relearn the association in a even more adaptive method. Treatment would involve desensitising the dread through fitness methods. Evaluation of the the behavioural model Among the talents of the model are: It offers led to the advancement of particular behavioural therapies, many of which possess got high achievement prices It can be broadly deemed as financing itself to medical research and evaluation Advocates of the model claim that once the symptoms of an disease are relieved, the problem goes away Weak points consist of: The model can be reductionist in the feeling that it decreases the intricacy of human being conduct to behavioural reactions to environmental stimuli Just the symptoms of ailments are treated, not really the root causes The model provides a limited look at of the causes of mental disease and will not really clarify the proof relating to hereditary predispositions to mental disease Environmental causes of irregular behaviours are just hardly ever found out in individuals One essential expansion of the behaviourist strategy can be known as sociable learning theory SLT.

These theorists electronic. Bandura claim that remark and fake known as modelling are an essential forms of learning neglected by the early behaviourists. Therefore maladaptive conduct can become discovered from badly working parents through fake.

But it can also become treated by therapies centered on modelling for example a person with a snake anxiety might find out from viewing a person manage snakes. Because many therapists who make use of this strategy work as a link between the behaviourist and the cognitive techniques, they are generally known as cognitive-behavioural therapists.

The cognitive model The cognitive strategy can be both an outgrowth from, and a response to, the behaviourist strategy. The fundamental presumption of the cognitive strategy keeps that mental occasions trigger behaviour in that we translate our environment before we respond to it.

In the case of irregular conduct, it can be the interpretations and disordered cognitions that business lead to the conduct. Psychological complications can become ascribed to distortions in our cognitions or considering procedures. These distortions are in the type of overgeneralisations, illogical values, not logical mistakes or adverse thoughts.

The concentrate of treatment can be on understanding the disordered thoughts and operating with the individual to modification these. Example A individual struggling from a frustrated feeling after declining a traveling check may become having adverse thoughts not really just about that particular failing but may become generalising those to additional areas of her existence.

She may believe she can be a failing in all elements of her existence and will by no means become effective once again. These thoughts are illogical and polarised, and the therapist would strive to instruct the affected person methods of changing her thoughts.

The therapist might also emphasise the importance of raising positive reinforcements, and recommend methods in which this might become accomplished.

It attempted to focus more on the individual as a whole person. Relating to Carl Rogers and additional leading numbers in this movement, people are rational beings, able to make their personal choices, and are motivated toward a state of fulfilment. Psychological problems happen when people encounter an incongruence between their actual self and their ideal self.

This produces a feeling of low self-worth. The humanistic model does not believe in labelling people by diagnosing them as having specific mental disorders. Example An individual with feelings of give up hope and a lack of motivation to live would become recognized in terms of a low sense of self-worth, maybe to do with the lack of a nurturing environment.

This offers led to them dropping touch with their true self. They are valuing themselves in overly bad ways, and feel that they are unacceptable and unlovable as a person.

In order to get in touch with their true self, it is definitely necessary to encounter conditions that present empathy, acceptance and authentic understanding. Talents of the humanistic model: There is definitely a large body of study, particularly case histories, to back up the statements of the humanistic model The model gives an optimistic look at of personality It is definitely considered as an honest model because it focuses on the person rather than the analysis The model facilitates the human being capacity for self-cure Weak points of the humanistic model: The focus on the individual bears the presumption that people should become able to help themselves, and may overlook important environmental and sociable factors e.

What is definitely normal about abnormality? It will evaluate abnormality through social issues and diagnostic techniques and strive to, illustrate the possible causes of mental disorders.

Irregular and normal conduct is definitely not very easily defined. What is definitely irregular. It is definitely to deviate from the tradition. What is definitely normal. And Psychopathology is definitely the study of mental illness or mental stress and the outward exhibition of behaviours of mental illness or mental impairment These are primarily bad thoughts about the self, the world and the long term Psychological Ideas of Major depression.

As these parts interact, they are seen to interfere with normal cognitive processing. This prospects to impairments in understanding, memory space and problem solving with the person becoming addicted with bad thoughts.

This is definitely symbolized in the feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness that are seen in many frustrated individuals Neuroanatomy, or the nervous system, could become to blame for abnormality, because many Schchizophrenics have irregularly formed brains assessment to normal people.

Yet it is definitely not obvious if this is definitely a cause or effect of the illness, all we know is definitely that there is definitely a correlation It proposes that genetic, organic or chemical disorders cause metallic ailments which give rise to behavioural and mental problems. Therefore, abnormality offers physical causes such as mind disorder neurologicalbiochemical imbalances, infections or genetics and so can only become cured through medical treatments The cognitive-behavioural approach offers been found particularly powerful regarding the understanding of the emergence of OCD.

This theory is definitely especially interested in the dynamic relations between conscious and unconscious motivation and asserts that behavior is definitely the product of underlying conflicts.

Psychodynamic theory was probably created in with the works of German scientist, Ernst von Brucke, who intended that all living organisms are energy-systems governed by the basic principle of the conservation of energy Most psychodynamic arrived in the idea from the development of a early existence of years as a child, which are in some part of the unconscious.

Evolutionists have identified that evolutionary psychoanalysis have a big space between psychoanalytic theory and the extrospective natural and sociable sciences. However, this does not consider into accounts the desirability of a quality or actions.

The description also breaks down to recognise that in all civilizations huge quantities of people may employ in behaviours that constitute mental disorders


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